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Return to Book Page. This complex assembly consists of a number of components; which in this book, are all separated, and illustrated pictorially. By using this book, all the interest groups who have stakes in oil and gas industry related activities, would surely find it very useful and beneficial — as the handbook discusses the ultimate point of crude oil or gas reception when brought up to the well surface from below. Get A Copy.
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Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 4. Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Abdulaziz rated it liked it May 08, Faisal Imran rated it it was amazing Aug 26, Jangjang rated it it was amazing Jan 27, Palani Kumar rated it liked it Nov 01, Amr rated it it was amazing Apr 08, Ahmadi rated it it was amazing Dec 19, Nassar rated it it was amazing Jul 18, Rmgdrd rated it it was amazing Dec 17, Ukok rated it it was amazing Mar 05, Mohammed rated it it was amazing Aug 25, A Christmas Tree comprises a series of valves, spools, a choke, and connection.
It used for production or injection wells such as oil wells, gas wells, water injection wells, water disposal wells, etc. A wellhead must be present in order to utilize a Christmas tree and is used without a Christmas tree during drilling operations. Producing wells that require pumps, such as Sucher Rod Pumping Systems, frequently do not utilize any tree due to no pressure containment requirement. The following video details Wellhead and Christmas Tree compounds, how they are installed and their main functions:.
A Christmas Tree often provides numerous functions including open or shut-in the well via wing valve, control and adjust the flow rate via the choke bean, place the well in safe conditions via master valves. Also, it includes additional functions such as chemical injection points, well intervention means, pressure relief means such as annulus venttree and well monitoring points such as pressure, temperature, corrosion, etc.
The primary function of a tree is to control the flow into or out of the well. It generally includes:. The two lower valves are called respectively lower master valve and upper master valve.
During normal production, the lower master valve is kept open while the upper master valve is used to place the well in safe conditions and is often hydraulically or pneumatically actuated. The right-hand valve is often called production wing valve beacause it is in the flow path of production fluids.
It is often manually controlled but it can be motorized so that remotely actuated.
The left-hand valve is often called kill wing valve. The valve at the top is called swab valve and it is used for well interventions like slickline, wireline or coiled tubing.
Your email address will not be published. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Follow us on Facebook :.Q: I work as an instrumentation design engineer on an offshore platform and have some questions. Ulaganathan ulaganathan. A: In oil and natural gas extraction, a Christmas tree, or "tree," is an assembly of valves, spools and fittings used for not only extraction, but also for water injection or disposal, gas injection and other operations.
Wellheads and Christmas trees are different pieces of equipment Figure 1. A wellhead is used during both drilling and production. During drilling, it is used without a Christmas tree while during production it is used in combination with the Christmas tree, to which the wellhead connects.
A typical surface tree will have four or five valves, normally arranged in a crucifix type pattern hence the endurance of the term "Christmas tree". Figure 2 shows a 5-valve Christmas tree. The five valves shown are described below, including their manual or automatic operation, but these methods of operation vary and each can either be manual or automatic. Your statement that "the response time for closing all the valves in the Christmas tree should not exceed 45 seconds" is incorrect, because the swab and the kill wing valves are always closed during production.
If the other valves are automatic, they will close in the following order: choke, production wing, upper master and lower master. The more hydrocarbon is spilled, the more will accumulate, and therefore, both the probability and the size of the accidents will rise.
The operation of the Christmas trees is usually very primitive, often completely manual. This results not only in safety risks, but also in the loss of billions of dollars due to the leakage loss of valuable hydrocarbons. Industry has lived with methane leaks 0. Part of this waste is due to the strange and wasteful practice of powering pneumatic controls with natural gas. As to valve noise, refer to Chapter 6.
The SCSSV on the well tube is the first valve which sees the reservoir pressure and has to close against the high pressure; hence, its closing time is always more than that of the other valves on the Xmas tree; i.
If the Christmas tree is not designed this way, the topside piping will see the reservoir pressure, which is not desirable. The order in which valves close is 1 choke valve.
Swab and kill valves are always closed in the normal operation. In less critical applications, the double barrier is not needed, and there can be only one master valve. In subsea applications, all the valves are hydraulically actuated. Some of the surface trees have all the valves hydraulically actuated via wellhead control panelbut can also be all manual or combination of hydraulic and manual. Generally control valves do not require straight pipe runs, however, for self-regulating control valves straight lengths are required for proper control.
Harvindar S Gambhir Harvindar. Gambhir ril. A: API RP14C provides the answers to your questions, but the short answer is that one wants to: 1 minimize the possibility of spills in the area of the Christmas tree, and 2 minimize the possibility of fires or ignition of hydrocarbons caused by spills or by moving equipment in the area. As to the noise levels, you need to perform a hydrodynamic noise calculation to define the thickness of the pipe and soundproofing you may require.Cameron wellhead systems range from conventional to application-specific systems for geothermal wells, jackup rigsunconventional playsand more.
Designed to reduce installation time and enhance safety, they use trims and proprietary sealing technologies for expected well conditions. Our conventional wellheads incorporate a wide range of slip-type and mandrel casing hangers and packoffs. Achieve configurability, robustness, reliability, extensive service life, and a reduced footprint.
Eliminate the need to install isolation bushings or dummy hangers when only the production string is run. Discover one of the most efficient systems available that can be used either onshore or offshore. Drill up to three dual-completion wells from a single slot, and reduce individual well costs and platform size.
Wellhead systems built for performance in HPHT, heavy oil, geothermal, and shallow water environments. Meet the challenges of high pressure and temperature with a variety of HPHT valves, hangers, and seals. Optimize fluid and pressure control for effective heavy oil recovery, including thermal recovery. Enhance efficiency in thermally enhanced steam injection recovery, waste disposal, and hot-water wells.
Install safer, faster, and easier with fewer personnel and less force compared with conventional clamps. Combine the fast makeup and low-torque requirement of FastLock connectors with the inherent low cost of flange connections.
Industry-first elastomer material qualification demonstrates compatibility with severe sour service conditions. Premium content requires special account permissions. We need a little more information from you before we can grant you access.
Wellhead Systems. Conventional and application-specific wellhead systems.
Contact Us. Related Documents. Conventional Wellhead Systems Our conventional wellheads incorporate a wide range of slip-type and mandrel casing hangers and packoffs. IC Conventional wellhead system Withstand pressures up to 10, psi in a configurable solution. TS-S Time-saving snap ring wellhead system Run the casing head through a diverter with a single-stage wellhead system. Fontus Configurable compact wellhead system Achieve configurability, robustness, reliability, extensive service life, and a reduced footprint.
SOLIDrill Modular compact wellhead system Work reliably in severe service conditions up to 10, psi and steep kickoffs. SSD-II Space-saving diverter wellhead system Eliminate the need to install isolation bushings or dummy hangers when only the production string is run. MN-DS Multibowl nested-diverter snap-ring wellhead system Eliminate intermediate casing strings and run through a diverter riser. M-MC Metal modular compact wellhead system Discover one of the most efficient systems available that can be used either onshore or offshore.
CSW Conductor-sharing wellhead system Drill up to three dual-completion wells from a single slot, and reduce individual well costs and platform size. Applications Wellhead systems built for performance in HPHT, heavy oil, geothermal, and shallow water environments. Heavy Oil Wellhead Systems Versatile wellhead systems for efficient heavy oil recovery Optimize fluid and pressure control for effective heavy oil recovery, including thermal recovery. Geothermal Wellhead Systems Fluid control systems for geothermal wells Enhance efficiency in thermally enhanced steam injection recovery, waste disposal, and hot-water wells.
Shallow-Water Systems Systems designed for shallow-water operations Save time compared with conventional systems and reduce exposure to hazardous operations. Connectors Wellhead and casing connectors. FastLock Quick wellhead connector Meet the needs of drilling and production with regard to handling safety and makeup time. FastClamp Conventional API ring gasket wellhead connector Install safer, faster, and easier with fewer personnel and less force compared with conventional clamps.In petroleum and natural gas extraction, a Christmas treeor "tree", is an assembly of valves, spools, and fittings used to regulate the flow of pipes in an oil wellgas wellwater injection wellwater disposal well, gas injection well, condensate well and other types of wells.
It was named for its resemblance to the series of starting lights at a drag racing stripcalled by that name. Christmas trees are used on both surface and subsea wells. It is common to identify the type of tree as either "subsea tree" or "surface tree".
Each of these classifications has a number of variations. Examples of subsea include conventional, dual bore, mono bore, TFL through flow linehorizontal, mudline, mudline horizontal, side valve, and TBT through-bore tree trees. The primary function of a tree is to control the flow, usually oil or gasout of the well.
A tree may also be used to control the injection of gas or water into a non-producing well in order to enhance production rates of oil from other wells. When the well and facilities are ready to produce and receive oil or gas, tree valves are opened and the formation fluids are allowed to go through a flow line. Flow lines on subsea wells usually lead to a fixed or floating production platform or to a storage ship or barge, known as a floating storage offloading vessel FSOor floating processing unit FPUor floating production, storage and offloading vessel FPSO.
A tree often provides numerous additional functions including chemical injection points, well intervention means, pressure relief means, monitoring points such as pressure, temperature, corrosion, erosion, sand detection, flow rate, flow composition, valve and choke position feedbackand connection points for devices such as down hole pressure and temperature transducers DHPT. On producing wells, chemicals or alcohols or oil distillates may be injected to preclude production problems such as blockages.
Functionality may be extended further by using the control system on a subsea tree to monitor, measure, and react to sensor outputs on the tree or even down the well bore. Tree complexity has increased over the last few decades. They are frequently manufactured from blocks of steel containing multiple valves rather than being assembled from individual flanged components.
This is especially true in subsea applications where the resemblance to Christmas trees no longer exists given the frame and support systems into which the main valve block is integrated. Note that a tree and wellhead are separate pieces of equipment not to be mistaken as the same piece. The Christmas tree is installed on top of the wellhead. A wellhead is used without a Christmas tree during drilling operations, and also for riser tie-back situations that later would have a tree installed at riser top.
Wells being produced with rod pumps pump jacks, nodding donkeys, grasshopper pumps, and so on frequently do not utilize any tree owing the absence of a pressure-containment requirement. A basic surface tree consists of two or three manual valves usually gate valves because of their flow characteristics, i. A typical sophisticated surface tree will have at least four or five valves, normally arranged in a crucifix type pattern hence the endurance of the term "Christmas tree".
The two lower valves are called the master valves upper and lower respectively. Master valves are normally in the fully open position and are never opened or closed when the well is flowing except in an emergency to prevent erosion of the valve sealing surfaces. The lower master valve will normally be manually operated, while the upper master valve is often hydraulically actuated, allowing it to be used as a means of remotely shutting in the well in the event of emergency. An actuated wing valve is normally used to shut in the well when flowing, thus preserving the master valves for positive shut off for maintenance purposes.This is the final post in our series describing wellhead components and their functions.
Wellhead XMas Tree Components & Tools
The Christmas tree serves a vital function on many wells. It is often used on producing wells to inject chemicals, alcohols, or oil distillates to solve production problems such as blockages. A Christmas tree is usually only used on a well with no pressure containment requirement that does not require any pumps. The tubing produces reservoir fluid and protects the wellbore from corrosion, wear and tear, and debris such as sand and silt.
If the well has more than one zone of production, it may contain up to four lines of production tubing. Conductor pipes are typically used on land wells to prevent the sides of the hole from caving into the wellbore. The pipe is one of many casing strings. It is the casing string put into the well first, sometimes before drilling begins. The packer is run into the wellbore, then expanded to create a seal. The packer aids wellhead production by separating different producing zones, facilitating artificial lift, supporting part of the weight of the tubing, and protecting the production casing from corrosion.
One common type of packer is the production packer, or test packer, which is squeezed to force part of the component to expand. Another type is the inflatable packer, which is filled with fluid to expand.
Forged Components manufactures quality forged nozzles, industrial flanges, and forged steel rings for ASME pressure vessels. If you need one of the best wellhead component suppliers for your next project, call us at or see our contact page.
Christmas Tree The Christmas tree serves a vital function on many wells. Conductor Pipe Conductor pipes are typically used on land wells to prevent the sides of the hole from caving into the wellbore. Need help getting started with your next project? Let our experts give you a hand.
Wellhead and Christmas tree components, types, functions and more
Get a Quote.In the complicated but vital industry of drawing oil and gas out of the earth and getting it to the surface, people often get confused about the difference between a Christmas tree assembly and a wellhead. Although the terms are used interchangeably, they are not the same piece of equipment. Each has valves and related equipment that help it control and guide the flow of this precious resource. A Christmas tree is an assembly of valves, spools and fittings used for oil, gas, water injection, water disposal, gas injection, condensate and other types of wells.
It is named for its resemblance to a decorated tree at Christmas. A wellhead must be present to utilize a Christmas tree and is used without a Christmas tree during drilling operations. The wellhead is the component at the surface of a well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment. Producing surface wells that require pumps pump jacks, nodding donkeys, etc. Tree complexity has increased over the last few decades.
The trees are frequently manufactured from blocks of steel containing multiple valves rather than made from multiple flanged valves. The primary function of a tree is to control the flow into or out of the well, usually oil or gas. A tree often provides numerous additional functions including chemical injection points, well intervention means, pressure relief means such as annulus venttree and well monitoring points such as pressure, temperature, corrosion, erosion, sand detection, flow rate, flow composition, valve and choke position feedback, connection points for devices such as down-hole pressure and temperature transducer.
Trees function for these purposes:. As Figure 1 shows, there are five valves: the kill wing valve, swab valve, production wing valve, upper master valve and lower master valve. When the operator, well and facilities are ready to produce and receive oil or gas, valves are opened and the released formation fluids are allowed to flow into and through a pipeline.
It is important to understand where these valves are located and what role they play in getting gas from the well bore to the customer. The two lower valves are called the master valves upper and lower, respectively because they lie in the flow path, which well fluids must take to get to the surface.
The lower master valve will normally be manually operated, while the upper master valve is often hydraulically actuated. Hydraulic tree wing valves are usually built to be fail-safe closed, meaning they require active hydraulic pressure to stay open. The right-hand valve is often called the flow wing valve or production wing valve, because it is in the flow path the hydrocarbons take to production facilities.